Fellows Detail

Professor Stephen Crain

BA (UCLA), PhD (UC Irvine)

Elected: 2006

Discipline: Linguistics

Specialisation: Linguistics, Language acquisition, Sentence processing, Neurolinguistics


The research interests of Professor Stephen Crain are in language acquisition and neurolinguistics.  He was appointed Macquarie University Distinguished Professor in 2010, and has been the Director of the ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders (CCD) since 2011.  The ARC Centre of Excellence includes researchers from three Australian universities (Macquarie University, the University of Western Australia and University of New South Wales), as well as prominent researchers from fourteen international institutions.

Crain was awarded an Australian Research Council Federation Fellowship (2004 - 2009) and is a Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (2006 - current).  He is the current Chair of the National Committee on Mind and Brain (Australian Academy of Science) and Director of the International Centre for Child Language Health, Beijing, China.  He is a visiting Professor at the Beijing Language and Culture University, China, and at the Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan.

Crain's recent grants (2006 - current) include an ARC Discovery grant to study the acquisition of logical words in English and Mandarin Chinese, an ARC LIEF grant to build the Southern Hemisphere's first full-head MEG brain imaging system, and an ARC Linkage Industrial Partners grant, with the Kanazawa Institute of Technology and the Yokogawa Electric Corporation, to build the world's first MEG system designed for the study of language processing in children.  Most recently, he led a team of researchers from Cochlear Ltd, The HEARing CRC, Macquarie University, and the Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT) to build the world's first MEG system for children and adults with Cochlear Implants.  The three MEG brain imaging systems are located at the KIT/Macquarie University Brain Research Laboratory at the Macquarie University node of the CCD.

For the last decase, Professor Crain's research has focused on children's acquisition of logical expressions, with an emphasis on the logical structures of two typologically distant languages, English and Mandarin Chinese.


  • Director, ARC Centre of Excellence for Cognition and its Disorders (2011 - 2017)
  • Visiting Professor, Beijing Language and Culture University (2008 - continuing)
  • Instructor, LOT Summer School, Utrecht, The Netherlands (June - July 2008); Course: Logic in child language
  • Instructor, Australian Linguistics Society, Linguistics Institute, Sydney (2008); Course: Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics (with Rosalind Thornton)
  • Director, Centre for Language Sciences, Macquarie University (2007 - 2010)
  • Instructor, Australian Linguistics Society, Linguistics Institute, Brisbane (2006); Course: A cross-linguistic perspective
  • Instructor, Linguistic Society of America, Linguistics Institute, MIT (2005); Course: Semantic Development in First Language Acquisition
  • Director, KIT-Macquarie Brain Research Laboratory, Macquarie University (2005 - 2010)
  • Deputy Director, Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University (2004 - 2010)
  • Honorary Professor to the School of English, Media Studies and Art History and the Centre for Research in Language Processing and Linguistics, University of Queensland, Australia (2003 - 2008)
  • Instructor, Linguistic Society of America, Summer Institute, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI (2003); Course: Acquisition of Semantics
  • Visiting Professor, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Kanazawa, Japan (2001 - continuing)
  • Co-Director, University of Maryland/KIT MEG Laboratory (2001 - 2004)
  • Co-director, Cognitive Neuroscience of Language Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (1999 - 2004)
  • Instructor, Summer Courses, San Sebastian, Spain (1997)
  • Guest Professor, German National Research Foundation, University of Potsdam, Germany (1996)
  • Professor and Chair, Department of Linguistics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (1995 - 2003)
  • Instructor, Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics, Linguistic Society of America, Summer Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (1993)
  • Professor and Chair, Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (1992 - 1995)
  • Instructor, Australian Linguistic Society, Linguistics Institute, Sydney, Australia (1992, 1993)
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (1991 - 1992)
  • Visiting Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston (1990)
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, University of California, San Diego, CA (1987)
  • Associate Professor of Linguistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (1986 - 1992)
  • Research Associate, Haskins Laboratories, New Haven (1985 - 1995)
  • Joint appointment, Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (1985)
  • Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, Brown University, Providence, RI (1985 - 1986)
  • Assistant Professor of Linguistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (1983 - 1985)
  • Lecturer, Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (1981 - 1983)
  • Research Assistant, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (1979 - 1980)
  • Teaching Assistant "Introduction to Psychology", University of California, Irvine, CA (1979-1980)
  • Instructor "Applications of Linguistic Theory", Claremont Graduate Summer School, Summer Session (1979)
  • Research Assistant, NIMH Small Grant "Accessing Meaning from the Mental Lexicon", Grant No 1R03 MH 32009-01 (1978-1979)


  • Macquarie University's Faculty of Human Sciences Publication Award for Senior Researchers (2013)
  • Distinguished Professor, Macquarie University (2010 - current)
  • Federation Fellow, Australian Research Council (2004 - 2009)
  • Visiting Fellow, University of Cambridge Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (2005)
  • Fellowship, Department of Psychology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (1988)
  • Fellowship, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Summer (1984)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Sloan Foundation, Department of Linguistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs (1981 - 1982)
  • Postdoctoral Fellowship, Sloan Foundation, Center for Cognitive Science, University of Texas, Austin (1980 - 1981)
  • Fellowship, Linguistic Society of America, Linguistic Institute, Salzburg, Austria (1979)
  • Fellowship, Regents of the University of California (1978 - 1979)
  • Fellowship, Claremont Graduate School (1976 - 1978)
  • Graduate Cum Laude, University of California, Los Angeles (1971)
  • Departmental Honors in Philosophy, University of California, Los Angeles (1971)



  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2015). Investigations in Universal Grammar: A Guide to Experiments on the Acquisition of Syntax and Semantics. Translation Series of Linguistics Abroad, Classical Textbook. Beijing, China: The Commercial Press.
  • Crain, S. (2012). The Emergence of Meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Lillo-Martin, D. (1999). An Introduction to Linguistic Theory and Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (1998). Investigations in universal grammar: A guide to experiments in the acquisition of syntax and semantics. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Book Chapters

  • Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (In Press). Semantics and pragmatics: Acquisition of logical connectives and focus. In C.T.J. Huang & R. Sybesma (Eds.), The encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics. The Netherlands: Brill Academic.
  • Crain, S. (2015). Sentence scope. In E. Bavin, & L.R. Naigles (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language (2nd ed., pp. 388-408). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2015). 3rd year grammar. In A. Gallego, & D. Ott (Eds.), 50 Years Later: Reflections on Chomsky (pp. 71-84). Cambridge, USA: MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014). Theories of language acquisition. In D.C. Phillips (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Educational Theory and Philosophy Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2013). Innateness and parameter setting. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind (pp. 414-418). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2013). Unification in child language. In I. Caponigro & C. Cecchetto (Eds.), From grammar to meaning: The spontaneous logicality of language (pp. 235-265). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., Notley, A., & Zhou, P. (2013). A parametric account of scope in child language. In S. Stavrakaki, M. Lalioti & P. Konstantinopoulou (Eds.), Advances in language acquisition (pp. 63-71). Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Publishing.
  • Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2013). Parameters: The pluses and the minuses. In M. den Dikken (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax (pp. 927-970). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S. (2012). Meaning in first language acquisition. In C. Maienborn, K. von Heusinger & P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics: An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning(3rd ed., pp. 2724-2752). Berlin: de Gruyter.
  • Pietroski, P., & Crain, S. (2012). The language faculty. In E. Margolis, R. Samuels & S.P. Stich (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Cognitive Science (pp. 361-381). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2011). Constraints in language acquisition. In P. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences (pp. 214-216). Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2011). Acquisition of semantics. In P. Hogan (Ed.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences (pp. 745-748). Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2011). Children's use of context in ambiguity resolution. In E. Gibson, & N. Pearlmutter (Eds.), The Processing and acquisition of Reference (pp. 43-64). Cambridge, MA, USA: The MIT Press.
  • Crain, S. (2009). Sentence scope. In E. Bavin (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Child Language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sano, T., & Crain, S. (2008). Unconstrained variable binding: ECM constructions in child English. In T. Sano, M. Endo, M. Isobe, K. Otaki, K. Sugisaki, & T. Suzuki (Eds.), An Enterprise in the Cognitive Science of Language: A Festschrift for Yukio Otsu (pp. 53-64). Tokyo, Japan: Hituzi Syobo.
  • Tesan, G., & Crain, S. (2008). An MEG study of the negative polarity item any: Lexical and postlexical processing. In R. Kakigi, K. Yokosawa, & S. Kuriki (Eds.), Biomagnetism: Interdisciplinary research and exploration (pp. 229-231). Tokyo, Japan: Hokkaido University Press.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T., & Minai, U. (2007). Hidden units in child language. In A. C. Schalley & D. Khlentzos (Eds.), Mental States. Volume 1: Evolution, function, nature (pp. 275-294). Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins.
  • Thornton, R., Crain, S. & Tesan, G. (2007). Principles, parameters and probability. In I. Gulzow, & N. Gagarina (Eds.), Frequency Effects in Language Acquisition (SOLA Series)(pp. 359-382). New York, United States: de Gruyter.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2006). Acquisition of syntax and semantics. In M. Traxler & M. Gernsbacher (Eds.), Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 1073-1110). St Peters, Australia: Elsevier.
  • Meroni, L., Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2006). Everybody knows. In V. van Geenhoven (Ed.), Semantics in Acquisition (pp. 89-114). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2005). Innateness and Universal Grammar. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Online Library.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2005). Acquisition of Syntax. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (pp. s00271). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Online Library.
  • Crain, S., Gualmini, A., & Pietroski, P. (2005). Brass tacks in linguistic theory: Innate grammatical principles. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence & S. Stich (Eds.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Content : Oxford University Press.
  • Gannari, S., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2005). Rapid relief of stress in dealing with ambiguity. In J. Trueswell & M. Tanenhaus (Eds.), Approaches to studying world-situated language use: Bridging the language-as-product and language-as-action traditions (pp. 245-259). : MIT Press.
  • Meroni, L. & Crain, S. (2005). How children avoid kindergarten paths. In E. Gibson & N. Pearlmutter (Eds.), The processing and acquisition of reference Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Pietroski, P., & Crain, S. (2005). Innate Ideas. In J. McGGilvray (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Chomsky (pp. 164-180). : Cambridge University Press.
  • Chierchia, G., Guasti, M.T., Gualmini, A., Meroni, L., & Crain, S. (2004). Semantic and pragmatic competence in children and adult's interpretation of 'or'. In I. Noveck & S. Wilson (Eds.), Experimental Pragmatics (pp. 283-300). London: Palgraves.
  • Crain, S. & Thrornton, R. (2003). Acquisition of syntax. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
  • Crain, S. (2002). The continuity assumption. In I. Lasser (Ed.), The Process of Language Acquisition (pp. 3-24). New York: Peter Lang.
  • Crain, S. & Wexler, K. (1999). Methodology in the study of language acquisition: A modular approach. In W.C. Ritchie & T.K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of Language Acquisition : Academic Press.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1994). Successful cyclic movement. In T. Hoekstra, & B. Schwartz (Eds.), Language Acquisition Studies in Generative Grammar (pp. 215-253). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1991). Recharting the course of language acquisition: Studies in elicited production. In N. Krasnegor, D. Rumbaugh, R. Schiefelbusch, & M. Studdert-Kennedy (Eds.), Biobehavioral Foundations of Language Development (pp. 321-339). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


  • Bill, C., Romoli, J., Schwarz, F. & Crain, S. (2016). Scalar implicatures vs. presuppositions: The view from acquisition [Special Issue]. Topoi: Presuppositions: Philosophy, Linguistics and Psychology, 35(1), 57-71. doi:10.1007/s11245-014-9276-1
  • Crain, S. (In Press). Acquisition of quantifiers. Annual Review of Linguistics.
  • Geçkin, V., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2016). The interpretation of logical connectives in Turkish. Journal of Child Language, 43(4), 810. doi://10.1017/S0305000915000306
  • Irish, M., Kamminga, J., Addis, D.R., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Hodges, J.R., & Piguet, O. (In Press). 'Language of the past': Exploring past tense disruption during autobiographical narration in neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of Neuropsychologydoi:10.1111/jnp.12073
  • Moscati, V., Romoli, J., Demarie, T.F., & Crain, S. (2016). Born in the USA: A comparison of modals and nominal quantifiers in child language. Natural Language Semantics, 24(1), 79-115. doi:10.1007/s11050-015-9120-1
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2016). Children’s interpretation of conjunction in the scope of negation in English and Mandarin: New evidence for the semantic subset maxim. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37(4), 867-900. doi:10.1017/S0142716415000296
  • Sowman, P., Ryan, M., Johnson, B.W., Savage, G., Crain, S., Harrison, E., Martin, E., & Burianova, H. (In Press). Grey matter volume differences in the left caudate nucleus of people who stutter. Brain and Language.
  • Tang, H., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2016). Dual temporal encoding mechanisms in human auditory cortex: Evidence from MEG and EEG. NeuroImage, 128, 32-43. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.053
  • Thornton, R., Notley, A., Moscato, V., & Crain, S. (In Press). Two negations for the price of one. Glossa.
  • Tieu, L., Romoli, J., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2016). Children's knowledge of free choice inferences and scalar implicatures. Journal of Semantics, 33(2), 269-298. doi:10.1093/jos/ffv001
  • Zhan, L., Crain, S., & Zhou, P. (2015). The online processing of only if- and even if- conditional statements: Implications for mental models. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 367-379. [Link]
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., Gao, L., Tang, Y., & Jia, M. (2015). The use of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(5), 1428–1436. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2304-6
  • Cheyne, D., Jobst, C., Tesan, G., Crain, S., & Johnson, B.W. (2014). Movement-related neuromagnetic fields in preschool age children. Human Brain Mapping, 35(9), 4858–4875. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22518
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Acquisition of the polarity sensitive item renhe ‘any’ in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Child Language, 41, 861-889. doi:10.1017/S0305000913000275
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Polarity sensitive expressions in child Mandarin. Language Acquisition, 21, 339-364. doi:10.1080/10489223.2014.884569
  • Huang, A., & Crain, S. (2014). Acquisition of the numerical wh-pronoun ji 'how many' in Mandarin Chinese. Lingua, 145, 122–140.
  • Moscati, V., & Crain, S. (2014). When negation and epistemic modality combine: The role of information strength in child language. Language Learning and Development, 10(36), 345-380. doi:10.1080/15475441.2014.880640
  • Peter, V., McArthur, G., & Crain, S. (2014). Using event-related potentials to measure phrase boundary perception in English. BMC Neuroscience, 15(1), 129. doi:10.1186/s12868-014-0129-z
  • Sowman, P., Crain, S., Harrison, E., & Johnson, B.W. (2014). Lateralization of brain activation in fluent and non-fluent preschool children: A magnetoencephalographic study of picture-naming. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 354. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00354
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S. & Zhan, L. (2014). Grammatical aspect and event recognition in children's online sentence comprehension. Cognition, 133(1), 262-276. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.06.018
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2014). Children’s knowledge of double negative structures in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 23(4), 333-359. doi:10.1007/s10831-013-9118-y
  • Crain, S. (2013). What's parsing got to do with it? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 3(3), 301-307. [Link]
  • Johnson, B.W., McArthur, G.M., Hautus, M., Reid, M., Brock, J., Castles, A., & Crain, S. (2013). Lateralized auditory brain function in children with normal reading ability and in children with dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 51(4), 633-641. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.12.015
  • Su, Y, E., & Crain, S. (2013). Scalar implicatures and downward entailment in child Mandarin. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 22(2), 167-187. doi:10.1007/s10831-012-9101-z
  • Su, Y, E., & Crain, S. (2013). Children's knowledge of disjunction and universal quantification in Mandarin Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 14(3), 599-631.
  • Coltheart, M., & Crain, S. (2012). Are there universals of reading? We don't believe so. Invited commentary on "Towards a universal model of reading". Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 20-21.
  • Crain, S., & Thornton, R. (2012). Syntax acquisition. Advanced Review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 3(2), 185-203. doi:10.1002/wcs.1158
  • Notley, A., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2012). English-speaking children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'not every'. Biolinguistics, 6(1), 32-69.
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Jensen, B., & Crain, S. (2012). Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': A comparison of English and Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 39(3), 482-522. doi:10.1017/S0305000911000092
  • Sowman, P.F., Crain, S., Harrison, E., & Johnson, B.W. (2012). Reduced activity of left orbitofrontal cortex precedes blocked vocalization: A magnetoencephalographic study. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 37, 359-365.
  • Su, Y.E., Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2012). Downward entailment in child Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 39(5), 957-990.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B., & Crain, S. (2012). How the brain responds to 'any': An MEG study. Brain and Language, 120(1), 66-72. [Link]
  • Zhou, P., Crain, S., & Zhan, L.K. (2012). Sometimes children are as good as adults: The pragmatic use of prosody in children's on-line sentence processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 67, 149-164. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2012.03.005
  • Zhou, P., Su, Y., Crain, S., Gao, L.Q., & Zhan, L.K. (2012). Children's use of phonological information in ambiguity resolution: A view from Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Child Language, 39, 687-730. doi:10.1017/S0305000911000249
  • Luo, Q.P., & Crain, S. (2011). Do Chinese wh- Conditionals have relatives in other languages? Language and Linguistics, 12(4), 753-798.
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2011). Children's knowledge of the quantifier dou in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 40(3), 155-176. doi:10.1007/s10936-010-9161-z
  • Crain, S., & Khlentzos, D. (2010). The Logic Instinct. Mind and Language, 25(1), 30-65.
  • Crain, S., Khlentzos, D., & Thornton, R. (2010). Universal Grammar versus linguistic diversity. Lingua, 120, 2668-2672. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2010.03.005
  • Johnson, B.W., Crain, S., Thornton, R., Tesan, G., & Reid, M. (2010). Measurement of brain function in pre-school children using a custom sized whole-head MEG sensor array. Clinical Neurophysiology, 121(3), 340-349. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2009.10.017
  • Shankweiler, D., Conway Palumbo, L., Fulbright, R., Einar Mencl, W., Van Dyke, J., Kollia, B., Thornton, R., Crain, S., & Harris, K. (2010). Testing the limits of language production in long-term survivors of major stroke: A Psycholinguistic and anatomic study. Aphasiology, 24(11), 1455-1485.
  • Tesan, G., Johnson, B.W., Reid, M., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2010). Measurement Of Neuromagnetic Brain Function In Pre-school Children With Custom Sized MEG. JoVE, 36. doi:10.3791/1693
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2010). Focus identification in child Mandarin. Journal of Child Language, 37, 965-1005. doi:10.1017/S0305000909990110
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., & Khlentzos, D. (2009). The case of the missing generalizations. Cognitive Linguistics, 20(1), 145-155. doi:10.1515/COGL.2009.008
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., & Murasugi, K. (2009). Capturing the evasive passive. Language Acquisition, 16(2), 123-133. doi:10.1080/10489220902769234
  • Notley, A., Zhou, P., Thornton, R., & Crain, S. (2009). Children's interpretation of focus expressions in English and Mandarin. Language Acquisition, 16(4), 240-282. doi:10.1080/10489220903266669
  • Zhou, P., & Crain, S. (2009). Scope assignment in child language: Evidence from the acquisition of Chinese. Lingua, 119, 973-988. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2009.01.001
  • Crain, S. (2008). The Interpretation of Disjunction in Universal Grammar. Language And Speech, 51(1&2), 151-169.
  • Crain, S., & Khlentzos, D. (2008). Is logic Innate? Biolinguistics, 2(1), 24-56.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2006). Is Generative Grammar deceptively simple or simply deceptive? Lingua, 116, 64-68.
  • Crain, S., Goro, T. & Thornton, R. (2006). Language acquisition is language change. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 35, 31-49.
  • Armon-Lotem, S.V., & Crain, S. (2005). Interface Conditions in Child Language: Crosslinguistic studies on the nature of possession. Language Acquisition, 12, 171-217.
  • Gualmini, A., & Crain, S. (2005). The structure of children's linguistic knowledge. Linguistic Inquiry, 36(3), 463-674.
  • Guasti, M.T., Chierchia, G., Crain, S., Foppolo, F., Gualmini, A., & Meroni, L. (2005). Why children and adults sometimes (but not always) compute scalar implicatures. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20, 667-696.
  • Armon-Lotem, S., Varlostika, S., & Crain, S. (2004). Interface Conditions in Child Language: Crosslinguistic studies on the nature of possession. Language Acquisition, 12(3&4), 171-217.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2002). Why language acquisition is a snap. Linguistic Review, 19, 163-183.
  • Crain, S., Ni, W., & Shankweiler, D. (2002). Grammatism. Brain and Language, 77(3), 294-304.
  • Crain, S., & Pietroski, P. (2001). Nature, nurture and Universal Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy, 24, 139-185.
  • Crain, S., Gualmini, A., & Meroni, L. (2000). The acquisition of Logical words. LOGOS and Language, 1, 49-59.
  • Musolino, J., Crain, S., & Thornton, R.J. (2000). Navigating negative semantic space. Linguistics and Philosophy, 38, 1-32.
  • Thornton, R. & Crain, S. (1999). Levels of representation in child language. Linguistic Review, 16, 81-123.
  • Crain, S., Thornton, R., Boster, C., Conway, L., Lillo-Martin, D., & Woodams, E. (1996). Quantification without qualification. Language Acquisition, 3(2), 83-153.
  • Fodor, J.D., Ni, W., Crain, S. & Shankweiler, D. (1996). Tasks and timing in the perception of linguistic anomaly. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research.
  • Ni, W., Crain, S. & Shankweiler, D. (1996). Sidestepping garden paths. Language and Cognitive Processes.
  • Shankweiler, D., Crain, S., Katz, L., Fowler, A.E., Liberman, A.M., Brady, S.A., Thornton, R., Lundquist, E., Dreyer, L., Fletcher, J.M., Stuebing, K.K., Shaywitz, S.E. & Shaywitz, B.A. (1995). Cognitive profiles of reading-disabled children: Comparison of language skills in phonology, morphology and syntax. Psychological Science, 6, 149-156.


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